工业大数据:智能制造和工业互联网的核心动力

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发表于 2019-12-26 15:10:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
当前,大数据已成为业界公认的工业升级的关键技术要素。马云在云栖大会上也表达了以前制造业靠电,未来靠数据的观点。在“中国制造2025”的技术路线图中,工业大数据是作为重要突破点来规划的,而在未来的十年,以数据为核心构建的智能化体系会成为支撑智能制造和工业互联网的核心动力。  工业大数据的重要性众所周知,但究其根本,大数据是手段而不是目的,人工智能也是如此。如果仅仅因为工业互联网的概念很热,企业就要去盲目拥抱工业互联网和工业大数据、人工智能技术,实际上是一个非常错误的观点。
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工业从数据到大数据  在新一代信息技术出现之前,工业企业已经正常运转了上百年,我们应该清晰地认识到信息技术手段的加入更像催化剂的作用。首先要明确需要达到怎样的业务目标,可以使得今天已经存在的生产工艺、工业产品、管理方法变得更好。  其实大数据支撑制造业的业务变革最根本的目标就是提质增效,在自动化与信息化基础之上,实现智能化的制造体系。在智能制造的基础上,然后才是打造平台,构建产业生态,与产业链进行更有效的协同,实现工业互联网的乘法式发展。  工业大数据的三个典型应用方向,也是我们实现工业互联网的目标,包括智能装备、服务型制造和跨界融合。第一个层次是设备级的,就是提高单台设备的可靠性、识别设备故障、优化设备运行等;第二个层次更多是针对产线、车间、工厂,提高运作效率,包括能耗优化、供应链管理、质量管理等;第三个层次是跨出了工厂边界的产业跨界,实现产业互联。  工业大数据并不是凭空而来,传统工业信息化一直在进行,我们已经有大量的数据来自于研发端、生产制造过程、服务环节,工业信息化过程一直在产生大量的数据,工业从数据到大数据,其实更多要考虑的是与自动化域数据的叠加,这是数据的两化融合。而在工业互联网时代,我们还需要纳入更多来自产业链上下游以及跨界的数据。  工业大数据有哪些特点?我们总结为“多模态、高通量、强关联”的特性。我们在工业领域总结了约有130多种不同类型的数据,数据模态多样,结构关系复杂。高通量是指数据持续不断地产生,采集频率高,通量大。强关联是指工业场景下的数据有非常强的机理支撑,不同学科之间的数据是在机理层面的关联,而不是数据字段上的关联。  而对工业大数据的分析应用,也不是将深度学习、强化学习的方法放到这里就可以有结果。我们需要获知研究对象的机理模型与定量领域知识,而这在当前基础上前进很困难。我们希望找出数据在输入、输出之间的统计关系,对机理和模型不确定、不清晰的部分加以补足,这是工业大数据应用的基础。 业务引领,数据推动产业发展  智能制造在不断获得数据的驱动,从智能制造到工业互联网平台,核心都是利用数据和模型,优化制造资源的配置效率。  工业互联网并不等同于智能制造,区别在于数据的跨界和业务的边界上是否有所突破。当下,太多人过于重视平台能力,而真正的工业互联网讲的是生态,资源优化从描述、诊断向预测、决策不断深入,从单机设备、生产线、产业链再到产业生态不断拓宽。  我们的生态如何来构建业务体系,如何跨界,才是工业互联网成功与否的关键。而决定工业互联网发展方向的,一定是业务驱动。我们从一开始就反对拎着一把锤子,满世界找钉子,现在很多大数据、人工智能公司就存在这个问题。  我们需要深入到一个工业领域,造一把可靠的锤子,刚好可以去敲有需求的钉子,业务驱动和问题驱动才是产业发展的本质,而不是技术驱动。将业务、数据理清楚,评估数据,真正实现业务落地,要点就是三个要素的协同——人、场景、算法。


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