布线技术之光纤熔接损耗和穿线技巧

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发表于 2019-12-26 11:34:20 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

定义:光纤接续后光线传输到接头处会产生一定的损耗量称之为熔接损耗或接续损耗。

  原因:光纤熔接损耗主要是由光纤自身的传输损耗和光纤熔接接头处的熔接损耗组成。由于光纤接续质量影响光纤线路传输损耗的客限、光纤线路无中继放大传输距离等参数,因此要尽可能降低降低光纤熔接接头损耗,以确保光纤CATV信号的传输质量。

微信图片_20191226113353.jpg

那么该如何降低光纤熔接接头损耗呢?方法如下:

1、一条线路上尽量采用同一批次的优质名牌裸纤

2、光缆架设按要求进行

3、挑选经验丰富训练有素的光纤接续人员进行接续

4、接续光缆应在整洁的环境中进行

5、选用精度高的光纤端面切割器来制备光纤端面

6、熔接机的正确使用

  布线中的穿线技巧

  布线项目中,施工水平的高低直接影响着系统的性能,严重的还要重新返工,如打槽打错了、配线架上的色标标反了以及编号搞错了等,其中穿线技术(如线缆穿过钢管、穿过过渡箱等)是比较常用的技术,现将这方面比较成熟的经验做个总结,供大家参考。

  穿线技术是布线中比较常见的技术,为了保证线缆不被刮破从而造成“短路”,在所有的钢管口都要安放塑料护口。一个可行的方法是穿线人员在施工时应随时携带“护口”,需要时可随时安放,以免因手头没有“护口”而“偷懒”。垂直线缆通过过渡箱转入垂直钢管往下一层走时,在过渡箱中要绑扎悬挂,避免线缆重量全压在弯角的里侧线缆上,因为这样会影响线缆的传输特性。在垂直线槽中的线缆要每米绑扎悬挂一次。线槽内布放线缆应平直、无缠绕,并且长短要一致。

  关于“余线”的问题,线缆在配线箱处的“余线”长短要一致,并且不要过长。最好将余线按分组表分组,从线槽出口拉直绑扎好,绑扎点间距不大于50cm。需要注意的是,不可用铁丝或硬电源线绑扎。

  关于标号的问题,线缆按照计算机平面图进行标号,每个标号对应一条4对芯线,对应的房间和插座位置不能弄错,在实施中,这是最容易出错的地方。经验是,两端的标号位置距末端25cm,贴浅色塑料胶带,上面用油性笔写上标号或贴上纸质号签后再缠上透明胶带。

  另外,一般要按3%的比例穿备用线,备用线放在主干线槽内,每层至少一根备用线。穿线完成后,所有的4对芯线缆应全面进行通断测试。测试可采用下面的方法,把两端线缆的芯全部剥开,露出铜芯。在一端把数字万用表拨到通断测试档,两表笔接到一对线缆芯上,在另一端把这对线缆芯频繁、短暂地接触。如果持表端能听到断续的声音就表示测试通过,每根线缆的4对芯都要测。通过这样的测试,能发现断线、断路和标错号的问题。

  布线期间,还有一个需要注意的是线缆拉出线缆箱后尚未布放到位时,如果要暂停施工,应将线缆仔细缠绕收起,妥善保管。这是很多没有规范管理的布线施工队伍经常容易忽略的地方。




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